In my head it works like this:
The browser requests a html document from a directory, then reads it and runs as directed. However, for the browser to be able to retrieve information on their system they must have CGI to handle these sorts of request now I believe one way is to use mysql. Essentially mysql is a C (++ or # not sure) database program. The browser sends the CGI a generic type request for a directory, and if the CGI or database management program reads and allows such a request the browser receives the information.
Assuming this is right generally, my problem is I don't have the terms to research this properly. Also, I don't know the standards. The only way I can write to my web server is to run a program of my own to listen for request, or to use the same FTP that filezilla does. I guess what I want to know is what are the standards for requesting server information. There must be universal standards for not just requesting information, but inputting passwords etcetera. What are the names of these interactions between CGIs and client side programs; I mean there must be some sort of field/discipline around the interaction there? Imagine all the browsers in different languages trying to communicate to all different types of databases, I wouldn't be surprised if there is a whole scripting language dedicated to the universal interaction between server side clients side programs (like an ASCII).