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It looks like ResultSet doesn't recognise the type of the column. Try using getBytes(String) or getBinaryStream(String) to read the geom field - perhaps you may be able to construct a String from a byte array, if that works? I doubt that will work, though I'd be surprised if those two methods returned nothing. If you're using a special DB-side library, perhaps it has string-coercing functions you can use to produce a readable resultset for Java? I'm guessing at something like "SELECT STRINGIFY(geom)" - where 'STRINGIFY' is either a built-in in your DB, or provided by the spatial data library.
I had a quick search out of curiosity and this page suggests to me that 'asText' might work: