Hi, so my teacher makes everything 100x more complicated than it should
If you know so much better than your teacher, what should be taught and how - why spending your time in school/college/university at all?
Your questions hints that you either missed some of lectures at your class or did not open the book which you should. The whole stuff is extremely simple and you can read all answers in any tutorial (which could be found from google in a few seconds). For example try this:
Trail: 2D Graphics (The Java™ Tutorials)
If you prefer something other - try something other. Keep in mind that the whole problem is for complete noobs so that you will succeed if only you spent necessary amount (not very big) of your time and efforts.
Of course you should know basics of java as prerequisites. If you don't, then google for tutorial on java basics also.